Linum bienne, Linum angustifolium, Pale Flax,
Hebrew: פשתה צרת-עלים, Arabic: كتان محول

Scientific name:  Linum bienne Mill.
Synonym name:  angustifolium Huds.
Common name:  Pale Flax
Hebrew name:  פשתה צרת-עלים
Arabic name:  كتان محول
Family:  Linaceae, Flax family, פשתיים

Linum bienne, Linum angustifolium,Pale Flax, Fîtâs,كتان محول ,פשתה צרת-עלים
Location: Achu Binyamina

Life form:  Usually biennial or perennial
Stems:  6-60cm, glabrous, usually branched
Leaves:  Alternate, entire, 0.5-1.5mm wide, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, 1- to 3-veined, smooth margin
Inflorescence:  Pedicels 5–18 mm
Flowers:  Hermaphrodite; light blue petals 2-3 times as long as sepals; stigmas linear
Fruits / pods:  Capsule 4-6mm, subglobose
Flowering Period:  March, April
Habitat:  Humid habitats
Distribution:  Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands, Semi-steppe shrublands
Chorotype:   Mediterranean
Summer shedding:  Ephemeral

Linum bienne, Linum angustifolium,Pale Flax, Fîtâs, פשתה צרת-עלים,  كتان محول
Location: Achu Binyamina


Derivation of the botanical name:
Linum, the Latin name for flax.
bienne, biennial.
angustifolium, angustus, "drawn together, narrow"; folium, leaf; meaning narrow leaved.
  • The standard author abbreviation Mill. is used to indicate Philip Miller (1691 – 1771), a botanist of Scottish descent.
  • The standard author abbreviation Huds. is used to indicate William Hudson (1730–1793), a British botanist and apothecary based in London.
Linum usitatissium is like Linum bienne but more robust.
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just after the bark in the multi-layer stem of the Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith (called pectin), which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine.
Flax is the oldest known textile fiber. There are many Biblical references to flax and to linen, and three distinct kinds of linen were used in Biblical times, each with its particular function.
  • The ordinary linen of coarsest texture is mentioned in Leviticus 6:10, Ezekiel 9:2, Daniel 10:5, and Revelation 15:6.
  • The second-finest is mentioned in Exodus 26:1 and 39:27.
  • The “fine linen” refers to the best cloth, which has sometimes been translated as “silk” but definitely refers to linen made of Flax. When Joseph was promoted to second-in-command in Egypt, he wore robes of linen of this type; among the offerings of the Tabernacle were articles made of this kind of linen; Esther wore robes of this kind when she became queen; the robes of kings, rich men and the temple choir were made of this fabric; the veil of the Temple itself was made of it. There are many more references to this fine-twined linen, which, however, compared to fine fabrics of today, was still rather a coarse article.


  • Along with wool , linen was the primary fabric mentioned in the Bible; however, Deuteronomium 22:11 forbids the wearing of clothing made from the two fibers woven together, as it is written, "You shall not wear combined fibers, wool and linen together". In Hebrew, this forbidden mixture is called "shatnez" (pronounced shot-nezz). Shatnez (שעטנז) is actually an acronym of the words שוע טווי נוז - Shua, Tavei and Noz "combed, spun and woven," which describes the stages in processing fabric: combing the raw fiber, spinning fibers into a thread, and weaving the threads into cloth.
    About seven Hebrew words for flax.

    The seed produces linseed oil.

    In 1860, rubber manufacturer Fredrick Walton invented linoleum (linum= "flax"; oleum=oil), the floor and wall covering often used in Victorian homes. Three years later, Walton received a British patent for his invention.
    Linoleum is made of linseed oil, pigments, pine rosin and pine flour.

    Bible resources:
    1. Genesis 41:42
      Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph’s finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck.
    2. Exodus 25:4
      blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen; goat hair;
    3. Exodus 26:1
      [ The Tabernacle ] “Make the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim woven into them by a skilled worker.
    4. Exodus 26:31
      “Make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, with cherubim woven into it by a skilled worker.
    5. Exodus 26:36
      “For the entrance to the tent make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer.
    6. Exodus 27:9
      [ The Courtyard ] “Make a courtyard for the tabernacle. The south side shall be a hundred cubits long and is to have curtains of finely twisted linen,
    7. Exodus 27:16
      “For the entrance to the courtyard, provide a curtain twenty cubits long, of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer—with four posts and four bases.
    8. Exodus 27:18
      The courtyard shall be a hundred cubits long and fifty cubits wide, with curtains of finely twisted linen five cubits high, and with bronze bases.
    9. Exodus 28:5
      Have them use gold, and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and fine linen.
    10. Exodus 28:6
      [ The Ephod ] “Make the ephod of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen—the work of skilled hands.
    11. Exodus 28:8
      Its skillfully woven waistband is to be like it—of one piece with the ephod and made with gold, and with blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and with finely twisted linen.
    12. Exodus 28:15
      [ The Breastpiece ] “Fashion a breastpiece for making decisions—the work of skilled hands. Make it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen.
    13. Exodus 28:39
      “Weave the tunic of fine linen and make the turban of fine linen. The sash is to be the work of an embroiderer.
    14. Exodus 28:42
      “Make linen undergarments as a covering for the body, reaching from the waist to the thigh.
    15. Exodus 35:6
      blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen; goat hair;
    16. Exodus 35:23
      Everyone who had blue, purple or scarlet yarn or fine linen, or goat hair, ram skins dyed red or the other durable leather brought them.
    17. Exodus 35:25
      Every skilled woman spun with her hands and brought what she had spun—blue, purple or scarlet yarn or fine linen.
    18. Exodus 35:35
      He has filled them with skill to do all kinds of work as engravers, designers, embroiderers in blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen, and weavers—all of them skilled workers and designers.
    19. Exodus 36:8
      [ The Tabernacle ] All those who were skilled among the workers made the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim woven into them by expert hands.
    20. Exodus 36:35
      They made the curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, with cherubim woven into it by a skilled worker.
    21. Exodus 36:37
      For the entrance to the tent they made a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer;
    22. Exodus 38:9
      [ The Courtyard ] Next they made the courtyard. The south side was a hundred cubits long and had curtains of finely twisted linen,
    23. Exodus 38:16
      All the curtains around the courtyard were of finely twisted linen.
    24. Exodus 38:18
      The curtain for the entrance to the courtyard was made of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer. It was twenty cubits long and, like the curtains of the courtyard, five cubits high,
    25. Exodus 38:23
      with him was Oholiab son of Ahisamak, of the tribe of Dan—an engraver and designer, and an embroiderer in blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen.)
    26. Exodus 39:2
      [ The Ephod ] They made the ephod of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen.
    27. Exodus 39:3
      They hammered out thin sheets of gold and cut strands to be worked into the blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen—the work of skilled hands.
    28. Exodus 39:5
      Its skillfully woven waistband was like it—of one piece with the ephod and made with gold, and with blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and with finely twisted linen, as the LORD commanded Moses.
    29. Exodus 39:8
      [ The Breastpiece ] They fashioned the breastpiece—the work of a skilled craftsman. They made it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen.
    30. Exodus 39:24
      They made pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen around the hem of the robe.
    31. Exodus 39:27
      For Aaron and his sons, they made tunics of fine linen—the work of a weaver—
    32. Exodus 39:28
      and the turban of fine linen, the linen caps and the undergarments of finely twisted linen.
    33. Exodus 39:29
      The sash was made of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn—the work of an embroiderer—as the LORD commanded Moses.
    34. Exodus 9:31
      (The flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley had headed and the flax was in bloom.
    35. Leviticus 6:10
      The priest shall then put on his linen clothes, with linen undergarments next to his body, and shall remove the ashes of the burnt offering that the fire has consumed on the altar and place them beside the altar.
    36. Leviticus 13:47
      [ Regulations About Defiling Molds ] “As for any fabric that is spoiled with a defiling mold—any woolen or linen clothing,
    37. Leviticus 13:48
      any woven or knitted material of linen or wool, any leather or anything made of leather—
    38. Leviticus 13:52
      He must burn the fabric, the woven or knitted material of wool or linen, or any leather article that has been spoiled; because the defiling mold is persistent, the article must be burned.
    39. Leviticus 13:59
      These are the regulations concerning defiling molds in woolen or linen clothing, woven or knitted material, or any leather article, for pronouncing them clean or unclean.
    40. Leviticus 16:4
      He is to put on the sacred linen tunic, with linen undergarments next to his body; he is to tie the linen sash around him and put on the linen turban. These are sacred garments; so he must bathe himself with water before he puts them on.
    41. Leviticus 16:23
      “Then Aaron is to go into the tent of meeting and take off the linen garments he put on before he entered the Most Holy Place, and he is to leave them there.
    42. Leviticus 16:32
      The priest who is anointed and ordained to succeed his father as high priest is to make atonement. He is to put on the sacred linen garments
    43. Deuteronomy 22:11
      Do not wear clothes of wool and linen woven together.
    44. Joshua 2:6
      (But she had taken them up to the roof and hidden them under the stalks of flax she had laid out on the roof.)
    45. Judges 14:12
      “Let me tell you a riddle,” Samson said to them. “If you can give me the answer within the seven days of the feast, I will give you thirty linen garments and thirty sets of clothes.
    46. Judges 14:13
      If you can’t tell me the answer, you must give me thirty linen garments and thirty sets of clothes.” “Tell us your riddle,” they said. “Let’s hear it.”
    47. Judges 15:14
      As he approached Lehi, the Philistines came toward him shouting. The Spirit of the LORD came on him in power. The ropes on his arms became like charred flax, and the bindings dropped from his hands.
    48. 1 Samuel 2:18
      But Samuel was ministering before the LORD—a boy wearing a linen ephod.
    49. 1 Samuel 22:18
      The king then ordered Doeg, “You turn and strike down the priests.” So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck them down. That day he killed eighty-five men who wore the linen ephod.
    50. 2 Samuel 6:14
      Wearing a linen ephod, David was dancing before the LORD with all his might,
    51. 1 Chronicles 4:21
      The sons of Shelah son of Judah: Er the father of Lekah, Laadah the father of Mareshah and the clans of the linen workers at Beth Ashbea,
    52. 1 Chronicles 15:27
      Now David was clothed in a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who were carrying the ark, and as were the musicians, and Kenaniah, who was in charge of the singing of the choirs. David also wore a linen ephod.
    53. 2 Chronicles 2:14
      whose mother was from Dan and whose father was from Tyre. He is trained to work in gold and silver, bronze and iron, stone and wood, and with purple and blue and crimson yarn and fine linen. He is experienced in all kinds of engraving and can execute any design given to him. He will work with your skilled workers and with those of my lord, David your father.
    54. 2 Chronicles 3:14
      He made the curtain of blue, purple and crimson yarn and fine linen, with cherubim worked into it.
    55. 2 Chronicles 5:12
      All the Levites who were musicians—Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun and their sons and relatives—stood on the east side of the altar, dressed in fine linen and playing cymbals, harps and lyres. They were accompanied by 120 priests sounding trumpets.
    56. Esther 1:6
      The garden had hangings of white and blue linen, fastened with cords of white linen and purple material to silver rings on marble pillars. There were couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl and other costly stones.
    57. Esther 8:15
      [ The Triumph of the Jews ] When Mordecai left the king’s presence, he was wearing royal garments of blue and white, a large crown of gold and a purple robe of fine linen. And the city of Susa held a joyous celebration.
    58. Proverbs 7:16
      I have covered my bed with colored linens from Egypt.
    59. Proverbs 31:13
      She selects wool and flax and works with eager hands.
    60. Proverbs 31:22
      She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple.
    61. Proverbs 31:24
      She makes linen garments and sells them, and supplies the merchants with sashes.
    62. Isaiah 3:23
      and mirrors, and the linen garments and tiaras and shawls.
    63. Isaiah 19:9
      Those who work with combed flax will despair, the weavers of fine linen will lose hope.
    64. Jeremiah 13:1
      [ A Linen Belt ] This is what the LORD said to me: “Go and buy a linen belt and put it around your waist, but do not let it touch water.”
    65. Ezekiel 9:2
      And I saw six men coming from the direction of the upper gate, which faces north, each with a deadly weapon in his hand. With them was a man clothed in linen who had a writing kit at his side. They came in and stood beside the bronze altar.
    66. Ezekiel 9:3
      Now the glory of the God of Israel went up from above the cherubim, where it had been, and moved to the threshold of the temple. Then the LORD called to the man clothed in linen who had the writing kit at his side
    67. Ezekiel 9:11
      Then the man in linen with the writing kit at his side brought back word, saying, “I have done as you commanded.”
    68. Ezekiel 10:2
      The LORD said to the man clothed in linen, “Go in among the wheels beneath the cherubim. Fill your hands with burning coals from among the cherubim and scatter them over the city.” And as I watched, he went in.
    69. Ezekiel 10:6
      When the LORD commanded the man in linen, “Take fire from among the wheels, from among the cherubim,” the man went in and stood beside a wheel.
    70. Ezekiel 10:7
      Then one of the cherubim reached out his hand to the fire that was among them. He took up some of it and put it into the hands of the man in linen, who took it and went out.
    71. Ezekiel 16:10
      I clothed you with an embroidered dress and put sandals of fine leather on you. I dressed you in fine linen and covered you with costly garments.
    72. Ezekiel 16:13
      So you were adorned with gold and silver; your clothes were of fine linen and costly fabric and embroidered cloth. Your food was honey, olive oil and the finest flour. You became very beautiful and rose to be a queen.
    73. Ezekiel 27:7
      Fine embroidered linen from Egypt was your sail and served as your banner; your awnings were of blue and purple from the coasts of Elishah.
    74. Ezekiel 27:16
      “‘Aram did business with you because of your many products; they exchanged turquoise, purple fabric, embroidered work, fine linen, coral and rubies for your merchandise.
    75. Ezekiel 40:3
      He took me there, and I saw a man whose appearance was like bronze; he was standing in the gateway with a linen cord and a measuring rod in his hand.
    76. Ezekiel 44:17
      “‘When they enter the gates of the inner court, they are to wear linen clothes; they must not wear any woolen garment while ministering at the gates of the inner court or inside the temple.
    77. Ezekiel 44:18
      They are to wear linen turbans on their heads and linen undergarments around their waists. They must not wear anything that makes them perspire.
    78. Daniel 10:5
      I looked up and there before me was a man dressed in linen, with a belt of fine gold from Uphaz around his waist.
    79. Daniel 12:6
      One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be before these astonishing things are fulfilled?”
    80. Daniel 12:7
      The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven, and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, “It will be for a time, times and half a time. When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed.”
    81. Hosea 2:5
      Their mother has been unfaithful and has conceived them in disgrace. She said, ‘I will go after my lovers, who give me my food and my water, my wool and my linen, my olive oil and my drink.’
    82. Hosea 2:9
      “Therefore I will take away my grain when it ripens, and my new wine when it is ready. I will take back my wool and my linen, intended to cover her naked body.
    83. Matthew 27:59
      Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,
    84. Mark 14:51
      A young man, wearing nothing but a linen garment, was following Jesus. When they seized him,
    85. Mark 15:46
      So Joseph bought some linen cloth, took down the body, wrapped it in the linen, and placed it in a tomb cut out of rock. Then he rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb.
    86. Luke 16:19
      [ The Rich Man and Lazarus ] “There was a rich man who was dressed in purple and fine linen and lived in luxury every day.
    87. Luke 23:53
      Then he took it down, wrapped it in linen cloth and placed it in a tomb cut in the rock, one in which no one had yet been laid.
    88. Luke 24:12
      Peter, however, got up and ran to the tomb. Bending over, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened.
    89. John 11:44
      The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face. Jesus said to them, “Take off the grave clothes and let him go.”
    90. John 19:40
      Taking Jesus’ body, the two of them wrapped it, with the spices, in strips of linen. This was in accordance with Jewish burial customs.
    91. John 20:5
      He bent over and looked in at the strips of linen lying there but did not go in.
    92. John 20:6
      Then Simon Peter came along behind him and went straight into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there,
    93. John 20:7
      as well as the cloth that had been wrapped around Jesus’ head. The cloth was still lying in its place, separate from the linen.
    94. Revelation 15:6
      Out of the temple came the seven angels with the seven plagues. They were dressed in clean, shining linen and wore golden sashes around their chests.
    95. Revelation 18:12
      cargoes of gold, silver, precious stones and pearls; fine linen, purple, silk and scarlet cloth; every sort of citron wood, and articles of every kind made of ivory, costly wood, bronze, iron and marble;
    96. Revelation 18:16
      and cry out: “‘Woe! Woe to you, great city, dressed in fine linen, purple and scarlet, and glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls!
    97. Revelation 19:8
      Fine linen, bright and clean, was given her to wear.” (Fine linen stands for the righteous acts of God’s holy people.)
    98. Revelation 19:14
      The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean.

    Linum bienne, Linum angustifolium,Pale Flax, Fîtâs,كتان محول ,פשתה צרת-עלים
    Location: Achu Binyamina