|Scientific name:||Sinapis arvensis L.|
|Synonym name:||Brassica arvensis (L.) Rabenh., Eruca arvensis (L.) Noulet, Raphanus arvensis (L.) Crantz, Rhamphospermum arvense (L.) Andrz. ex Besser|
|Common name:||Charlock, Charlock Mustard, Corn Mustard, Corn-Mustard, Field Mustard, Wild Mustard|
|Hebrew name:||חרדל השדה|
|Family:||Cruciferae / Brassicaceae, מצליבים|
|Life form:||Therophyte, annual|
|Stems:||20–120 cm high; erect, cylindrical, much branched; abundant white hairs that are long and straight, but slightly downward-pointing; often a reddish purple ring or patch at the junction of a new stem developing from an older stem; upper stems terminate in racemes of yellow flowers|
|Leaves:||Alternate, dissected, dentate or serrate; upper leaves may clasp the stem, lower leaves have petioles and ovate, oblanceolate, or obovate in shape|
|Flowers:||4 Yellow petals, 6 stamens, and a single green pistil in the center|
|Fruits / pods:||Silique tapers into a short beak; several fine nerves running along the length of its surface, which is slightly pubescent or hairless; seedpods, erect or spread outward, but they do not droop downward; tiny dark brown or black spherical seeds||Flowering Period:||January, February, March, April, May, December|
|Distribution:||Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands, Semi-steppe shrublands, Deserts and extreme deserts, Montane vegetation of Mt. Hermon|
Derivation of the botanical name:
Sinapis, sinapi, Latin name for the mustard plant, from the flavor of the seeds.
arvensis, arvum, field, cultivated land, plowed land; of cultvated fields.
Brassica, the classical Latin name for cabbage.
Erucaria, Latin, eruca, rocket, cruciformous herb; arius, Latin suffix, pertaining to.
Raphanus, Greek raphanos, "quick-appearing" because of the rapid germination of the seeds.
Rhamphospermum, rhamph- or rhampho- combining form Greek rhamphos, akin to rhabdos, rod : beak; spermum, seeded.
The Hebrew name: חרדל, hardal Post Biblical Hebrew mustard; Aramaic-Syrian: חרדלא (=mustard); Arabic: hardal is probably a loan word.
Many have supposed that the charul (Greek, φρύγανα άγρία, similar to a term meaning "a rough dry stick") may probably be the Sinapis arvensis, which is a pernicious weed abounding in corn-fields.
The word خردل khardul is applied in all old Arabic works, to species of mustard and it is not unlike the kharul or charul, of the Bible.