|Scientific name:||Tribulus terrestris L.|
|Common name:||Puncturevine, Caltrop, Cathead, Yellow vine, Goathead|
|Hebrew name:||קוטב מצוי|
|Plant Family:||Zygophyllaceae, Caltrop Family, זוגניים|
|Life form:||Therophyte, annual|
|Stems:||Highly branched stems generally less than 1 m long (up to 2.4 m), branching radially from the crown|
|Leaves:||Alternate, opposite, compound, pinnate, dentate or serrate|
|Fruits||Four or five single-seeded nutlets; hard and bearing two to three sharp spines, 10 mm long and 4–6 mm broad point-to-point. These nutlets resemble goats' or bulls' heads|
|Flowering Period:||April, May, June, July, August, September|
|Habitat:||Cultivated areas (weeds)|
|Distribution:||Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands, Semi-steppe shrublands, Shrub-steppes, Deserts and extreme deserts, Montane vegetation of Mt. Hermon|
|Chorotype:||Euro-Siberian - Med - Irano-Turanian|
Derivation of the botanical name:
Tribulus, an instrument resting on three of its iron prongs, while a fourth projected upward, thrown on the ground to impede an enemy's cavalry, a caltrop. Transfer from its resemblance in form; a kind of thorn or thistle, land-caltrops: Tribulus terrestris, Linn.
terrestris, of or belonging to the earth or land; growing on the ground.
caltrop is derived from the Latin calcitrapa (foot-trap).
Dardar, דרדר, translated τρίβολος, trı́bolos in the Septuagint: Genesis 3:18; Hosea 10:8, English Versions of the Bible "thistle".
τρίβολος also occurs in the New Testament: Matthew 7:16, "thistle"; Hebrews 6:8, the King James Version "briers" the Revised Version (British and American) "thistles".
The Hebrew word dardar, דרדר is a species of the star thistle, perhaps the Centaurea iberica. Centaurea iberica is one of the commonest weeds of the eastern Mediterranean. see: Thorns and Thistles in the Bible