Xanthium strumarium, Xanthium occidentale, Xanthium pungens, Cocklebur,
Hebrew: לְכִיד הַנְּחָלִים, Arabic: اللزيق السلعي, Egypt: شبكه "Shabka"

Scientific name:  Xanthium strumarium L.
Synonym name:  Xanthium occidentale Bertol.Xanthium pungens Wallr.
Common name:  Cocklebur, Rough Cocklebur, Broad cocklebur, Bur thistle, Burweed, Clotbur
Hebrew name:  לכיד הנחלים
Arabic name:  اللزيق السلعي
Egypt:  شبكه "Shabka"
Plant Family:  Compositae / Asteraceae, מורכבים

Flowers in Israel, wildflowers, flora, native plants
Location: Netanya, the Dora rain pool

Life form:  Therophyte, annual
Spinescence:  Fruits
Stems:  Erect, usually much-branched, 30-120cm high, rough-hairy, often with lengthwise ridges and spotted
Leaves:  Alternate, entire, dentate or serrate
Flowers:  Small, green, inconspicuous, and unisexual
Fruits / pods:  Seedpod; 2 seeds, usually 1 a bit larger than the other
Flowering Period:   May, June, July, August, September
Habitat:  Cultivated areas and disturbed habitats
Distribution:  Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands, Semi-steppe shrublands
Chorotype, טיפוס התפוצה:  American
Summer shedding:  Ephemeral

Xanthium strumarium, Rough Cocklebur,לְכִיד הַנְּחָלִים
Location: Netanya, the Dora rain pool

Derivation of the botanical name:
Xanthium, from xanthos (Greek), "yellow," in reference to the seedpods which turn from green to yellow as they ripen (later they become deep yellow to brown).
strumarium, Struma, "cushion-like swelling or tumour"; of or pertaining to tumors or ulcers; rough.
The Hebrew name: לכיד, lacid, coherent; the fruits of Xanthium bear hooked spines on their seed coat that cling to the fur of animals who transport them to other locations before detachment (hence the name for coherent).
  • The standard author abbreviation L. is used to indicate Carl Linnaeus (1707 – 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, the father of modern taxonomy.
  • The standard author abbreviation Bertol. is used to indicate Antonio Bertoloni (1775 – 1869), an Italian botanist.
  • The standard author abbreviation Wallr. is used to indicate Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wallroth (1792 – 1857), a German botanist.
  • The standard author abbreviation Moretti is used to indicate Giuseppi L. Moretti (1782 – 1853), an Italian botanist.
Characteristics of sites at which Xanthiuma spp. populations were collected:
  1. Xanthium italicum: Mean temperature: 12.8 C., Habitat: Maize field, Soybean field
  2. Xanthium strumarium: Mean temperature: 14.3 C., Habitat: Ditch, Wasteland and Riverside
  3. Xanthium orientale: Mean temperature: 16 C., Habitat: Roadside

The fruiting head, densely covered by hooked spines, is 15-20 mm long.
According to some authorities, the Cocklebur is perhaps the most annoying and painfully prickly, and for that reason, the most logical plant for the Hosea reference.
Bible resources:
  1. Hosea 9:6
    Even if they escape from destruction, Egypt will gather them, and Memphis will bury them. Their treasures of silver will be taken over by briers, and thorns will overrun their tents.

Xanthium strumarium,  Rough Cocklebur, לכיד הנחלים
Location: Netanya, the Dora rain pool

Native plants of Israel
Location: Netanya, the Dora rain pool