Martha's exotic Backyard in Israel

Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine,
Hebrew: אראוקריה קיפחת ,אראוקריה רמה, Arabic: أروكاريا متغايرة الأوراق

Scientific name:  Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco
Synonym name:   Araucaria excelsa R.Br., Eutassa heterophylla Salisb.
Common name:  Norfolk Island pine
Hebrew name:  אראוקריה רמה
Arabic name:  أروكاريا متغايرة الأوراق
Family:  Araucariaceae, ancient family of coniferous trees

Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine, אראוקריה רמה

Life form:  A conical tree 50-70 m. tall, 1.25-1.75 m. in girth
Stems:  Bark gray-brown, exfoliating in fine scales; branches in a flat horizontal plane, sometimes pendent, branchlets in whorls of 4-7
Leaves:  Foliage dimorphic; juvenile leaves awl-shaped, incurved, green, needle-like, to 1.2 cm long; adult leaves scale-like, 4-5 mm long, incurved, densely arranged, bright dark green; on fertile branchlets overlapping, broadly ovate, spine-tipped, 6 mm long by 4-6 mm wide
Inflorescence:  May, June
Flowers:  Inconspicuous and not showy
Fruits / pods:  Male cones in clusters, elongated, 4 cm long, yellowish-brown or reddish; microsporophylls acute, margins ciliate, denticulate; female cones, usually high on top of the tree, are broader than long, 12-15 cm long, with triangular scales and a long incurved bract; seeds 2.5-3 cm long by 1.2 cm wide, with broad wings; cotyledons 4, epigeal
Flowering Period:  May, June
Distribution:  garden trees
Chorotype:  Norfolk Island (Australia), the island has an area of only 34 square kilometres and is home to the sole native species Araucaria heterophylla. This, however, only has a very small natural distribution area.

Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine, אראוקריה רמה
Female cones


Derivation of the botanical name:
Araucaria, named after the province of Arauco in South Chile.
heterophylla, diversely leaved.
  • The standard author abbreviation Salisb. is used to indicate Richard Anthony Salisbury (1761 – 1829), a British botanist.
  • The standard author abbreviation Franco is used to indicate João Manuel António Paes do Amaral Franco (1921 — 2009), a Portuguese botanist.
  • The standard author abbreviation R.Br. is used to indicate Robert Brown (1773 – 1858), a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist
Female cones are produced on trees older than 15 years and male cones on trees older than 40 years.

Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine, אראוקריה רמה
Male cones


Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine, אראוקריה רמה


Araucaria heterophylla, Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine, אראוקריה רמה


Flowers in Israel online, Plants, Flora